Frank AU, Mark D and Raubal M (2013), "Researching Cognitive and Linguistic Aspects of Geographic Space: Las Navas Then and Now", In Cognitive and Linguistic Aspects of Geographic Space. Berlin Heidelberg , pp. 1-22. Springer. |
BibTeX:
@incollection{frank13:1[TUW-217970], author = {Frank, Andrew U. and Mark, David and Raubal, Martin}, editor = {Frank, Andrew U. and Mark, David and Raubal, Martin}, title = {Researching Cognitive and Linguistic Aspects of Geographic Space: Las Navas Then and Now}, booktitle = {Cognitive and Linguistic Aspects of Geographic Space}, publisher = {Springer}, year = {2013}, pages = {1--22}, file = {docs/after2010/d146eb20bd9c0cb65bcd023ea0a4895fdcc7.pdf} } |
Weiser P, Frank AU and Abdalla A (2012), "Process Composition And Process Reasoning Over Multiple Levels Of Detail", In Extended Abstracts. |
Abstract: Space and time are the most prominent features of our everyday experience. While we can movebr>relatively freely within and interact with space, time imposes stricter restrictions on us. We arebr>mere bystanders to the ever-changing flow of time. Close observation of our environment revealsbr>that nothing stands still and everything changes constantly.br>It is generally acknowledged that GIS need to account for the dynamic aspects of the world.br>The almost exclusive depiction of static phenomena (spatial configurations) in GIS reveals itsbr>close historical ties to Cartography. A first call to move beyond the ''map metaphor'' and focusbr>on ''spatial processes, changing the spatial configuration'' can be found in Abler et al. (1971). Anbr>integration of processes in GIS will help to answer questions related to ''When somethingbr>happened or will happen'' (Frank 1998). For a thorough review focusing on the dynamic aspectsbr>in GIS research see Worboys (2005). The vision of a fully dynamic GIS requires a simple,br>combinable, and scalable formal application-independent approach (Weiser and Frank 2010).br>In this work we present our ongoing research on (1) how to represent processes over multiplebr>levels of detail, (2) their combination, and as a result (3) reasoning over processes. We buildbr>upon the notion of ''processes over multiple levels of detail (LoD)'' we have formalizedbr>previously, using partial function application (Weiser and Frank 2012). We now focus on thebr>challenges that arise from combining those processes. |
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{weiser12[TUW-214935], author = {Weiser, Paul and Frank, Andrew U. and Abdalla, Amin}, title = {Process Composition And Process Reasoning Over Multiple Levels Of Detail}, booktitle = {Extended Abstracts}, year = {2012}, note = {Vortrag: GIScience 2012, Columbus, Ohio; 2012-09-18 -- 2012-09-21} } |
Frank AU (2010), "How Do People Think about Space - Position Paper", In Seminar 10131 Spatial Representation and Reasoning in Language : Ontologies and Logics of Space. |
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{frank10[TUW-185252], author = {Frank, Andrew U.}, editor = {Bateman, John and Cohn, A. and Pustejovsky, James}, title = {How Do People Think about Space - Position Paper}, booktitle = {Seminar 10131 Spatial Representation and Reasoning in Language : Ontologies and Logics of Space}, year = {2010}, note = {Vortrag: Schloss Dagstuhl Seminars, Dagstuhl, Germany; 2010-03-28 -- 2010-04-01}, url = {http://publik.tuwien.ac.at/files/PubDat_185252.pdf}, file = {docs/after2010/PubDat_185252.pdf} } |
Wilke G and Frank AU (2010), "Tolerance geometry: Euclid's first postulate for points and lines with extension", In Proceedings of the 18th SIGSPATIAL International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems. , pp. 162-171. |
Abstract: Object representation and reasoning in vector based geographic information systems (GIS) is based on Euclidean geometry. Euclidean geometry is built upon Euclid’s first postulate, stating that two points uniquely determine a line. This postulate makes geometric constructions unambiguous and thereby provides the foundation for consistent geometric reasoning. It holds for exact coordinate points and lines, but is violated, if points and lines are allowed to have extension. As an example for a point that has extension consider a point feature that represents the city of Vienna in a small scale GIS map representation. Geometric constructions with such a point feature easily produce inconsistencies in the data. The present paper addresses the issue of consistency by formalizing Euclid’s first postulate for geometric primitives that have extension. We identify a list of six consequences from introducing extension: These are ‘new qualities’ that are not present in exact geometric reasoning, but must be taken into account when formalizing Euclid’s first postulate for extended primitives. One important consequence is the positional tolerance of the incidence relation (“on”-relation). As another consequence, equality of geometric primitives becomes a matter of degree. To account for this fact, we propose a formalization of Euclid’s first postulate in Łukasiewicz t-norm fuzzy logic. A model of the proposed formalization is given in the projective plane with elliptic metric. This is not a restriction, since the elliptic metric is locally Euclidean. We introduce graduated geometric reasoning with Rational Pavelka Logic as a means of approximating and propagating positional tolerance through the steps of a geometric construction process. Since the axioms (postulates) of geometry built upon one another, the proposed formalization of Euclid’s first postulate provides one building block of a geometric calculus that accounts for positional tolerance in a consistent way. The novel contribution of the paper is to define geometric reasoning with extended primitives as a calculus that propagates positional tolerance. Also new is the axiomatic approach to positional uncertainty and the associated consistency issue. |
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{wilke2010tolerance, author = {Wilke, Gwen and Frank, Andrew U}, title = {Tolerance geometry: Euclid's first postulate for points and lines with extension}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 18th SIGSPATIAL International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems}, year = {2010}, pages = {162--171}, file = {docs/docs5/5044_Wilke_Frank_ACM_2010_PubDat_189049.pdf} } |
Frank AU (2010), "Why Context Matters in Giving Driving Instructions ---The Necessity for Representing Decision Points" |
Abstract: A critical review of past research can lead to identify new, fruitful research directions: here I consider the research on driving instruction by linguists and, especially, by Geoinformation scientists, which has concentrated on static spatial situations. The insight obtained from qualitative spatial reasoning is limited because it did not include actions, change, and motion. The important use case for dynamic spatial behavior is navigation: how are instructions communicated to an actor, e.g., from the car navigation system to the driver and how are they acted upon? An analysis of the communication situation must be dynamic; while moving the driver identies decision situations at points where instructions are expected. The participants in way nding communication must have the decision situations as shared context. Maps represent static spatial situations (Kuhn, 2010) and miss the dynamic situations a navigator encounters. Research on recognition of decision situations is recommended to identify decision situatins for the navigation system, which are the context which the navigator assumes to be shared. |
BibTeX:
@unpublished{frank4889, author = {Andrew U Frank}, title = {Why Context Matters in Giving Driving Instructions ---The Necessity for Representing Decision Points}, year = {2010}, file = {docs/docs4/4889_Delmenhorst_10.pdf} } |
Frank AU (2008), "Shortest Path in a Multi-Modal Transportation Network", KI Künstliche Intelligenz. Vol. 3(3), pp. 14-18. |
Abstract: Location Based Services to assist travelers in wayfinding are a prime application for expert system techniques. The use of public transportation leads nearly always to a combination of different services from different providers (multi-modal transportation). Information systems must combine data for the different services and produce advice to navigate in space and to obtain the right tickets, reservations, etc. This information can be seen as two (or more) state-transition diagrams: one for the spatial navigation and one for the business (ticketing, validation, reservation) rules. A (categorical) product combines two state-transition diagrams. The implementation is immediate using an intuitionistic logic reasoner built into the programming language, which infers typing for second order, polymorphic functions and allows their safe execution. The shortest path algorithm in this combined network produces sound advice and reminds the user to acquire tickets and plans the necessary navigation to ticket vending machines, etc. The analysis shows how to specify the connections between the two graphs optionally. The approach combines typical expert system technologies like inference engines with object-oriented programing; recent advances increase the level of reasoning possible during compilation. The use of a high-level programming language with substantial inference power facilitates the formalization of domain knowledge and is a viable alternative to the classical expert system architecture. |
BibTeX:
@article{frank08, author = {Frank, Andrew U.}, title = {Shortest Path in a Multi-Modal Transportation Network}, journal = {KI Künstliche Intelligenz}, year = {2008}, volume = {3}, number = {3}, pages = {14--18}, url = {http://publik.tuwien.ac.at/files/PubDat-166268.pdf}, file = {docs/docs4/4430_Combine_nav_pub_transportation.pdf} } |
Malek MR, Frank AU and Delavar MR (2007), "A Logic-Based Foundation for Spatial Relationships in Mobile GIS Environment", In Location Based Services and TeleCartography. Berlin, Heidelberg , pp. 193-204. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. |
Abstract: The mobile computing is a new revolutionary style of technology that enables us to access information anywhere and anytime. Mobile GIS as an integrating system of mobile computing and some GIS capabilities has fostered a great interest in the GIS field. Although mobile computing has expanded in the past decade, there are still some important constraints the complicate work with a mobile information system. The limited resources in the mobile computing would restrict some features that are available in the traditional computing technology. This chapter attempts to provide a paradigm to treat moving objects in a mobile GIS environment. An idea based on space and time partitioning is suggested. A logic-based framework for representing and reasoning about qualitative spatial relations over moving objects in space and time is proposed. We provide convincing evidence of this theory, by demonstrating how it can provide a framework model of topological relations in space and time. The expressivity power of the proposed framework is shown with some new topological relationships between moving objects and describing the coaching problem in a mobile environment. The latter finds its application in RoboCup championship and battlefield, as well. |
BibTeX:
@inbook{Malek2007, author = {Malek, Mohammad Reza and Frank, Andrew U. and Delavar, Mahmoud Reza}, editor = {Gartner, Georg and Cartwright, William and Peterson, Michael P.}, title = {A Logic-Based Foundation for Spatial Relationships in Mobile GIS Environment}, booktitle = {Location Based Services and TeleCartography}, publisher = {Springer Berlin Heidelberg}, year = {2007}, pages = {193--204}, url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-36728-4_15}, doi = {10.1007/978-3-540-36728-4_15} } |
Frank AU (2006), "Qualitative Spatial Reasoning: Cardinal Directions as an Example", In Classics from IJGIS. Boca Raton, Fl. , pp. 327-353. CRC Press. |
Abstract: Geographers use spatial reasoning extensively in large-scale spaces, i.e., spaces that cannot be seen or understood from a single point of view. Spatial reasoning differentiates several spatial relations, e.g. topological or metric relations, and is typically formalized using a Cartesian coordinate system and vector algebra. This quantitative processing of information is clearly different from the ways human draw conclusions about spatial relations. Formalized qualitative reasoning processes are shown to be a necessary part of Spatial Expert Systems and Geographical Information Systems. Addressing a subset of the total problem, namely reasoning with cardinal directions, a completely qualitative method, without resource to analytical procedures, is introduced and a method for its formal comparison with quantitative formula is defined. The focus is on the analysis of cardinal directions and their properties. An algebraic method is used to formalize the meaning of directions. The standard directional symbols (N, W, etc.) are supplemented with a symbol corresponding to an undetermined direction between points too close to each other which greatly increases the power of the inference rules. Two specific systems to determine and reason with cardinal directions are discussed in some detail.br>From this example and some other previous work, a comprehensive set of research steps is laid out, following a mathematically based taxonomy. It includes the extension of distance and direction reasoning to extended objects and the definitions of other metric relations that characterize situations when objects are not disjoined. The conclusions compare such an approach with other concepts. |
BibTeX:
@incollection{frank06:327[TUW-120811], author = {Frank, Andrew U.}, editor = {Fisher, Peter}, title = {Qualitative Spatial Reasoning: Cardinal Directions as an Example}, booktitle = {Classics from IJGIS}, publisher = {CRC Press}, year = {2006}, pages = {327--353}, note = {A reprint of my article of the same title in the collection of the "most significant and influential articles ever published in the journal" (Peter Fisher, Summary).} } |
Frank AU (2006), "Twenty Years of Reasoning with Spatial Relations", In Classics from IJGIS Twenty Years of the International Journal of Geographical Information Science and Systems. Boca Raton London New York , pp. 353-363. Taylor & Francis.
[BibTeX] |
BibTeX:
@incollection{frank06:353[TUW-120825], author = {Frank, Andrew U.}, editor = {Fisher, Peter}, title = {Twenty Years of Reasoning with Spatial Relations}, booktitle = {Classics from IJGIS Twenty Years of the International Journal of Geographical Information Science and Systems}, publisher = {Taylor & Francis}, year = {2006}, pages = {353--363} } |
Rezayan H, Frank AU, Karimipour F and Delavar M (2005), "Temporal Topological Relationships of Convex Spaces in Space Syntax Theory", In International Syposium on Spatio-temporal Modeling, Spatial Reasoning, Analysis, Data Mining and Data Fusion. Hong Kong , pp. 81-91. Chinese Acedamy of Surveying and Mapping Hong Kong Polytechnic University. |
Abstract: GI science development has to be served by effective GI theory. Development of GI theory requires clearer characterisation of GI domain which could illustrate real world better and provide a framework for delineation of rational hypotheses. This aim is followed in recent researches by using mathematics as the basis of GI theory. Axiomatic set theory and formal logic is the foundation of this mathematical treatment for study of structures, changes, and spaces in GI domain. While the potential hypotheses require to be modelled into logical structures and be prepared to be evaluated, computer science is adopted as another foundation of GI theory. One of the recent trends in GI theory development is characterizing the real world as functions and utilization of category theory and algebras as the mathematical basis for handling realities and developing hypotheses. Considering this, development of unique and integrated basis for handling static and dynamic GI concepts is one of the hypotheses which are studied in some researches. Their outcomes define theoretical feasibility of defining morphisms between static and dynamic domains known as functors or time liftings. This approach is evaluated for some models and implemented using functional programming languages, however, evaluations are still required for more different characterization of the world. This paper provided one of these evaluations over a topological characterization of convex spaces in real world described by Space Syntax theory. This theory illustrates human settlements and societies as a strongly connected space-time relational system between convex spaces. Such a system is represented by a connectivity graph. Some morphologic analyses are also defined for deriving properties of the graph that illustrate how the space and time are overcome by relational systems and convex spaces. Investigation of temporality in Space Syntax theory resulted that more dynamicity exists in local scales among activities. Then the specific problem of this paper is defined as modelling integrated static and dynamic analyses of an activity / point based problem in local scale in regards with studying how effective they overcome space and time. The derived model is implemented using a functional programming language known as Haskell. While the most important aim of the paper as validity of the time lifting approach for topological models of convex spaces is obtained, some questions about mixed usage static and dynamic data and how the required computation time and memory is increased are formed. |
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{rezayan05:81[TUW-120019], author = {Rezayan, H and Frank, Andrew U. and Karimipour, Farid and Delavar, M}, editor = {Tang, Xinming and others}, title = {Temporal Topological Relationships of Convex Spaces in Space Syntax Theory}, booktitle = {International Syposium on Spatio-temporal Modeling, Spatial Reasoning, Analysis, Data Mining and Data Fusion}, publisher = {Chinese Acedamy of Surveying and Mapping Hong Kong Polytechnic University}, year = {2005}, pages = {81--91}, file = {docs/docsH/ISSTM2005 v16 _TemporalTopologicalRelationshipsofConvexSpacesinSpaceSyntaxTheory_.pdf}, file2 = { docs/docsA/ConvexSpaces_SpaceSyntaxTheory_V1_ASTA2007.pdf} } |
Frank AU and Grünbacher A (2001), "Temporal Data: 2nd Order Concepts Lead to an Algebra for Spatio-Temporal Objects", In Complex Reasoning on Geographical Data. |
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Frank2001g, author = {Frank, Andrew U. and Grünbacher, Andreas}, title = {Temporal Data: 2nd Order Concepts Lead to an Algebra for Spatio-Temporal Objects}, booktitle = {Complex Reasoning on Geographical Data}, year = {2001}, file = {docs/docs3/3624_2nd-order.pdf} } |
Frank AU (1998), "Different Types of 'Times' in GIS", In Spatial and Temporal Reasoning in GIS. , pp. 40-61. Oxford University Press. |
BibTeX:
@incollection{Frank1998b, author = {Frank, Andrew U.}, editor = {Egenhofer, Max J. and Golledge, Reginald G.}, title = {Different Types of 'Times' in GIS}, booktitle = {Spatial and Temporal Reasoning in GIS}, publisher = {Oxford University Press}, year = {1998}, pages = {40--61}, file = {docs/docsA/Different_Types_of_TIMES_in_GIS_98.pdf}, file2 = { docs/docs1/692timesgis98.pdf} } |
Frank AU (1997), "Spatial Ontology: A Geographical Information Point of View", In Spatial and Temporal Reasoning. , pp. 135-153. Kluwer. |
Abstract: Ontology is the science of objects. It is an ancient discipline, which has recently been rediscovered, and overhauled, for the purposes of Artificial Intelligence. Ontology has been concerned with the properties of objects, with their modes of existence and with questions such as how they can be divided in parts and how they fill space.This presentation takes the position of a user of ontologies. It will seek to show not only that there is a 'production of ontologies' in the research literature, but also that these ontologies are useful and can be used. The paper will concentrate on the latter two issues, focusing on a particular area of application, namely that of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). It will answer the question, how can ontologies be used and how can they contribute to building better information systems? This will mostly be done by showing how the lack of a consistent ontology in a system causes difficulties for its users.The paper will conclude with a set of recommendations as to how ontologies can be made more useful and how the connection between the producers and consumers of an ontology can be structured to make the exchange of ideas more effective. I will also list a number of broad general directions and specific topics which I believe may yield useful contributions both from a scientific and from an engineering point of view. This paper is built on a simple metaphor: ontologies are products and are sold in the international supermarket of AI research. In this supermarket, consumers look for ontologies which fulfill their particular needs. They select ontologies to describe the entities in their application domain and the chosen ontologies must form a consistent ensemble. Unfortunately, contradictions and other inconsistencies may become apparent as one seeks to implement the information system. In consequence, producers of ontologies must put clear labels on the products on the shelf, indicating the advantages and disadvantages of each ontology and indicating also potential conflicts with other ontologies: ``Truth in labeling for ontologies!'' |
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bolzanopaper, author = {Frank, Andrew U.}, editor = {Stock, Oliviero}, title = {Spatial Ontology: A Geographical Information Point of View}, booktitle = {Spatial and Temporal Reasoning}, publisher = {Kluwer}, year = {1997}, pages = {135--153}, note = {Included in the present edition as chapter 8}, file = {docs/docsH/ontologyafgipv97.pdf} } |
Frank AU (1996), "Hierarchical Spatial Reasoning. Internal Report." Dept. of Geoinformation, Technical University Vienna. |
Abstract: Using hierarchical methods for spatial reasoning is a popular research topic. Hierarchical spatial data structures, especially quadtrees, are used in many implementations of GIS and have proved their efficiency. Operations on hierarchical spatial data structures are effective to compute spatial relations, but do not automatically imply Hierarchical Spatial Reasoning. Hierarchical spatial reasoning is using coarser, less detailed representations to compute an approximative answer if the quality of the approximation is sufficient. Hierarchical spatial reasoning is closely related to computing approximative results and estimation of their errors. This paper explores two spatial reasoning operations and deduces a general definition of ‘hierarchical spatial reasoning’. Although the examples are very simple - computation of area and intersection - and applied to a raster representation, the definition appears general. Compared with other definitions it captures much of the essence of hierarchical spatial reasoning. This sets the framework in which general rules when hierarchical spatial reasoning can be employed may be deduced. Hierarchical data structures are useful for hierarchical reasoning, but they can be transformed to a more efficient ‘incremental hierarchical structure’, e.g., an incremental quadtree. Then, incremental hierarchical spatial reasoning algorithms use previously computed values to compute the next approximation and are therefore as efficient as a direct calculation with the same error bound. |
BibTeX:
@techreport{Frank1996b, author = {Frank, A. U.}, title = {Hierarchical Spatial Reasoning. Internal Report.}, publisher = {Dept. of Geoinformation, Technical University Vienna}, year = {1996}, file = {docs/docsH/hierarchical.pdf}, file2 = { docs/docs1/2483_Hierarchical_Reasoning.pdf} } |
Montello DR and Frank AU (1996), "Modeling Directional Knowledge and Reasoning in Environmental Space: Testing Qualitative Metrics", In The Construction of Cognitive Maps. , pp. 321-344. Kluwer Academic Publishers. |
BibTeX:
@incollection{Montello1996, author = {Montello, D. R. and Frank, A. U.}, editor = {Portugali, J.}, title = {Modeling Directional Knowledge and Reasoning in Environmental Space: Testing Qualitative Metrics}, booktitle = {The Construction of Cognitive Maps}, publisher = {Kluwer Academic Publishers}, year = {1996}, pages = {321--344}, file = {docs/docsA/dmafmodeling96.pdf} } |
Frank AU (1996), "Qualitative Spatial Reasoning: Cardinal Directions as an Example", IJGIS. Vol. 10(3), pp. 269-290. |
Abstract: Geographers use spatial reasoning extensively in large-scale spaces, i.e.,spaces that cannot be seen or understood from a single point of view.Spatial reasoning differentiates several spatial relations, e.g.topological or metric relations, and is typically formalized using aCartesian coordinate system and vector algebra. This quantitativeprocessing of information is clearly different from the ways humans drawconclusions about spatial relations. Formalized qualitative reasoningprocesses are shown to be a necessary part of Spatial Expert Systems andGeographic Information Systems.Addressing a subset of the total problem, namely reasoning with cardinaldirections, a completely qualitative method, without recourse to analyticalprocedures, is introduced and a method for its formal comparison withquantitative formulae is defined. The focus is on the analysis of cardinaldirections and their properties. An algebraic method is used to formalizethe meaning of directions. The standard directional symbols (N, W, etc.)are supplemented with a symbol corresponding to an undetermined directionbetween points too close to each other which greatly increases the power ofthe inference rules. Two specific systems to determine and reason withcardinal directions are discussed in some detail.From this example and some other previous work, a comprehensive set ofresearch steps is laid out, following a mathematically based taxonomy. Itincludes the extension of distance and direction reasoning to extendedobjects and the definitions of other metric relations that characterizesituations when objects are not disjointed. The conclusions compare such anapproach with other concepts. |
BibTeX:
@article{Frank1996e, author = {Frank, Andrew U.}, title = {Qualitative Spatial Reasoning: Cardinal Directions as an Example}, journal = {IJGIS}, year = {1996}, volume = {10}, number = {3}, pages = {269--290}, file = {docs/docsH/ijgis-frank.pdf} } |
Hong J-H, Egenhofer MJ and Frank AU (1995), "On the Robustness of Qualitative Distance- and Direction-Reasoning", In Auto-Carto 12. , pp. 301-310. |
Abstract: This paper focuses on spatial information derived from the composition of two pairs of cardinal directions (e.g., North and North-East) and approximate distances (e.g., near and far), i.e., given the approximate distances a1 (A, B) and a2 (B, C) and the cardinal directions c1 (A, B) and c2 (B, C), what are a3 (A, C) and c3 (A, C)? Spatial reasoning about cardinal directions and approximate distances is challenging because distance and direction will affect the composition. This paper investigates the dependency between qualitative and quantitative inference methods for reasoning about cardinal directions and approximate distances. Cardinal directions are based on a 4-sector model (North, East, South, West), while approximate distance correspond to a set of ordered intervals that provide a complete partition (non-overlapping and mutually exclusive) such that the following interval is greater than or equal to the previous one (for example, ``far'' would extend over a distance that is at least as great as ``medium.'') We ran comprehensive simulations of quantitative reasoning, and compared the results with the ones obtained from quantitative reasoning. The results indicate that the composition is robust if the ratio between two consecutive intervals of quantitative distances is greater than 3. |
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Hong1995, author = {Hong, Jung-Hong and Egenhofer, Max J. and Frank, Andrew U.}, title = {On the Robustness of Qualitative Distance- and Direction-Reasoning}, booktitle = {Auto-Carto 12}, year = {1995}, pages = {301--310}, file = {docs/docs1/2013.Robustness_af.pdf} } |
Papadias D, Frank AU and Koubarakis M (1994), "Constraint-Based Reasoning in Geographic Databases: The Case of Symbolic Arrays", In 2nd ICLP Workshop on Deductive Databases. Publication booktitle of the GMD. |
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Papadias1994b, author = {Papadias, D. and Frank, A. U. and Koubarakis, M.}, title = {Constraint-Based Reasoning in Geographic Databases: The Case of Symbolic Arrays}, booktitle = {2nd ICLP Workshop on Deductive Databases}, publisher = {Publication booktitle of the GMD}, year = {1994}, file = {docs/docs1/1726.iclp.paper.dimitris_af.pdf} } |
Frank AU (1994), "Qualitative Temporal Reasoning in GIS - Ordered Time Scales", In Sixth International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, SDH'94. Vol. 1, pp. 410-430. IGU Commission on GIS. |
Abstract: There is a strong request for GIS to include temporal information. Most efforts currently are addressing the incorporation of time qua calendar time. Events are dated according to the ordinary time and calendar, which are effectively measurements on an interval scale. Temporal information available only as relative order between events cannot be incorporated in this framework. Clearly knowledge about temporal order without measurement on the time scale is less precise but nevertheless useful. Human beings use qualitative temporal reasoning all the time. Qualitative ordinal information about events is typically encountered in archeology, urban development etc. where precise dates for events are not known but the relative order of events can be deduced from observations. Even in legal proceedings about parcel data, ordinal relations are often all what matters. These are among the disciplines which have asked for the inclusion of facilities to deal with temporal data in GIS. This paper gives specifications for ordinal temporal reasoning using qualitative methods. It differentiates between different time models, each having slightly different properties: models with or without events at the same time, models with total or partial order. It discusses the introduction of tolerances (without recourse to measurements of an epsilon value) and how it affects reasoning. The semantics are given as formal specification, expressed in an algebraic notation which can be executed. An example from a parcel subdivision is used throughout and results from various computations are compared with human logical deduction. |
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Frank1994a, author = {Frank, Andrew U.}, editor = {Waugh, Thomas C. and Healey, Richard G.}, title = {Qualitative Temporal Reasoning in GIS - Ordered Time Scales}, booktitle = {Sixth International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, SDH'94}, publisher = {IGU Commission on GIS}, year = {1994}, volume = {1}, pages = {410--430}, file = {docs/docsH/ordered_time_scales.pdf} } |
Frank AU (1992), "Qualitative Spatial Reasoning about Distances and Directions in Geographic Space", Journal of Visual Languages and Computing. Vol. 1992(3), pp. 343-371. |
BibTeX:
@article{Frank1992e, author = {Frank, Andrew U.}, title = {Qualitative Spatial Reasoning about Distances and Directions in Geographic Space}, journal = {Journal of Visual Languages and Computing}, year = {1992}, volume = {1992}, number = {3}, pages = {343--371}, file = {docs/docs_afxxx/afqualspatrddgs92.pdf} } |
Paiva JAdC, Egenhofer MJ and Frank AU (1992), "Spatial Reasoning about Flow Directions: Towards an Ontology for River Networks", In International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. XVII Congress. Vol. 24/B3 Comission III, pp. 318-324. |
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Paiva1992, author = {Paiva, João Argemiro de Carvalho and Egenhofer, Max J. and Frank, Andrew U.}, editor = {Fritz, Lawrence and Lucas, James}, title = {Spatial Reasoning about Flow Directions: Towards an Ontology for River Networks}, booktitle = {International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. XVII Congress}, year = {1992}, volume = {24/B3 Comission III}, pages = {318--324}, file = {docs/docsH/jpmeafspatreaflow92.pdf} } |
Frank AU (1992), "Spational Reasoning - Theoretical Considerations and Practical Applications", In EGIS '92 Third European Conference and Exhibition on Geographical Information Systems. Vol. 1, pp. 310-319. EGIS Foundation. |
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Frank1992g, author = {Frank, Andrew U.}, editor = {Harts, Janjaap and Ottens, Henk F. L. and Scholten, Henk J. and Ondaatje, Deby A.}, title = {Spational Reasoning - Theoretical Considerations and Practical Applications}, booktitle = {EGIS '92 Third European Conference and Exhibition on Geographical Information Systems}, publisher = {EGIS Foundation}, year = {1992}, volume = {1}, pages = {310--319}, file = {docs/docs_afxxx/afspatialr92.pdf} } |
Frank AU, Campari I and Formentini U (1992), "Theories and methods of spatio-temporal reasoning in geographic space - Foreword" Vol. 639 Springer Verlag. |
BibTeX:
@book{frank1992theories, author = {Frank, Andrew U and Campari, Irene and Formentini, Ubaldo}, title = {Theories and methods of spatio-temporal reasoning in geographic space - Foreword}, publisher = {Springer Verlag}, year = {1992}, volume = {639}, file = {docs/docs_afxxx/aficuftmstrgs92.pdf} } |
(1992), "Theories and Models of Spatio-Temporal Reasoning in Geographic Space" Springer (LNCS 639).
[BibTeX] |
BibTeX:
@book{frank92theories, , editor = {Frank, Andrew U. and Campari, I. and Formentini, U.}, title = {Theories and Models of Spatio-Temporal Reasoning in Geographic Space}, publisher = {Springer (LNCS 639)}, year = {1992} } |
Kuhn W and Frank AU (1991), "A Formalization of Metaphors and Image-Schemas in User Interfaces", In Cognitive and Linguistic Aspects of Geographic Space. , pp. 419-434. Kluwer Academic Publishers. |
Abstract: Sound engineering approaches to user interface design require the formalization of key interaction concepts, one of them being metaphor. Work on interface metaphors has, however, been largely non-formal so far. The few existing formal theories of metaphor have been developed in the context of natural language understanding, learning, or reasoning. We propose to formalize interface metaphors by algebraic specifications. This approach provides a comprehensive formalization for the essential aspects of metaphorical user interfaces. Specifically, metaphor domains are being formalized by algebras, metaphorical mappings by morphisms, and image-schemas by categories. The paper explains these concepts and the approach, using examples of spatial and spatializing metaphors. |
BibTeX:
@incollection{Kuhn1991, author = {Kuhn, W. and Frank, A. U.}, editor = {Mark, D. M. and Frank, A. U.}, title = {A Formalization of Metaphors and Image-Schemas in User Interfaces}, booktitle = {Cognitive and Linguistic Aspects of Geographic Space}, publisher = {Kluwer Academic Publishers}, year = {1991}, pages = {419--434}, file = {docs/docsS/wkafmetaphor.pdf} } |
Frank AU (1991), "Qualitative spatial reasoning with cardinal directions", In 7. Österreichische Artificial-Intelligence-Tagung/Seventh Austrian Conference on Artificial Intelligence. , pp. 157-167. |
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{frank1991qualitative, author = {Frank, Andrew U}, title = {Qualitative spatial reasoning with cardinal directions}, booktitle = {7. Österreichische Artificial-Intelligence-Tagung/Seventh Austrian Conference on Artificial Intelligence}, year = {1991}, pages = {157--167}, file = {docs/docs_afxxx/afqualspatrcd91.pdf} } |
Frank AU (1990), "Qualitative Spatial Reasoning about Cardinal Directions", In Ninth International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography (Autocarto) 10.. Thesis at: Technical University Vienna. Bethesda, Md. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping and the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. |
BibTeX:
@incollection{Frank1990c, author = {Frank, Andrew U.}, title = {Qualitative Spatial Reasoning about Cardinal Directions}, booktitle = {Ninth International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography (Autocarto) 10}, publisher = {American Congress on Surveying and Mapping and the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing}, school = {Technical University Vienna}, year = {1990}, file = {docs/docs_afxxx/afcardinal91.pdf} } |